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Ingredient        Amount         Substitutes 
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Ingredient        Amount         Substitutes 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Allspice          1 teaspoon     * 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon and 1/2 teaspoon
                                   ground cloves
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Apple pie spice   1 teaspoon     * 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon, 1/4 teaspoon 
                                   nutmeg and 1/8 teaspoon cardamom 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Arrowroot starch  1 teaspoon     * 1 tablespoon flour 
                                 * 1 1/2 teaspoon cornstarch 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Baking powder     1 teaspoon     * 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 5/8 
                                   teaspoon cream of tartar 
                                 * 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2 cup 
                                   sour milk or buttermilk or yogurt 
                                   (decrease liquid called for in recipe
                                   by 1/2 cup)               
                                 * 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2
                                   tablespoon vinegar or lemon juice used
                                   with sweet milk to make 1/2 cup 
                                   (decrease liquid called for in recipe 
                                   by 1/2 cup) 
                                 * 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/4 to 
                                   1/2 cup molasses (decrease liquid in 
                                   recipe by 1 to 2 tablespoons)
                                 * 1/3 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2      
                                   teaspoon cream of tartar               
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bay leaf          1 whole        * 1/4 teaspoon cracked bay leaves 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Beau monde        1 teaspoon     * 1 teaspoon seasoning salt 
seasoning                        * 1/2 teaspoon table salt plus dash of
                                   garlic, onion and celery salts or 
                                   powders 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Beef stock base,  2 teaspoons    * 1 beef bouillon cube
instant                                
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Beef stock base,  4 teaspoons    * 1 can (10 1/2 ounces) condensed, 
instant           dissolved        undiluted beef bouillon or consumme' 
                  in 1 1/4         
                  cups water        
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bread crumbs,     1/3 cup        * 1 slice of bread
dry                                  
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bread crumbs,     3/4 cup        * 1 slice bread
soft                                
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Broth, beef or    1 cup          * 1 bouillon cube dissolved in 1 cup 
chicken                            boiling water
                                 * 1 teaspoon powdered broth base 
                                   dissolved in 1 cup boiling water
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Butter            1 cup          * 7/8 to 1 cup hydrogenated fat plus 1/2 
                                   teaspoon salt 
                                 * 7/8 cup oil plus 1/2 teaspoon salt 
                                 * 7/8 cup lard plus 1/2 teaspoon salt 
                                 * 1 cup margarine
                                 * 7/8 cup oil
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Carob powder      If recipe      * 1 ounce unsweetened chocolate
                  calls for 3       
                  tablespoons         
                  carob powder       
                  plus 2             
                  tablespoons       
                  water              
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Catsup            1 cup          * 1 cup tomato sauce, 1/2 cup sugar and
                                   2 tablespoons vinegar (for use in
                                   cooking) 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chicken stock     1 1/2          * 1 chicken bouillon cube 
base, instant     teaspoons          
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chicken stock     1 tablespoon   * 1 cup canned or homemade chicken 
base, instant     dissolved in     broth or stock
                  1 cup water       
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chili sauce       1 cup          * 1 cup tomato sauce, 1/4 cup brown 
                                   sugar, 2 tablespoons vinegar, 1/4
                                   teaspoon cinnamon, dash of ground 
                                   cloves and dash of allspice 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chives, finely    2 teaspoons    * 2 teaspoons finely chopped green onion
chopped                            tops 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chocolate chips,  1 ounce        * 1 ounce sweet cooking chocolate
semisweet                           
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chocolate,        1-2/3 ounces   * 1 ounce unsweetened chocolate plus 
semisweet                          4 teaspoons sugar
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chocolate,        6 ounce        * 2 squares unsweetened chocolate plus
semisweet         package          2 tablespoons shortening and 1/2 cup 
pieces, melted                     sugar
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chocolate,        1 ounce or     * 3 tablespoons cocoa plus 1 tablespoon
unsweetened       square           butter or margarine 
                                 * 3 tablespoons carob powder plus 2 
                                   tablespoons water 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cocoa             1/4 cup or     * 1 ounce (square) chocolate (decrease 
                  4 tablespoons    fat called for in recipe by 1/2
                                   tablespoon)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Coconut           1 tablespoon   * 1 1/2 tablespoons fresh, grated 
                  grated, dry      
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Coconut Cream     1 cup          * 1 cup cream
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Coconut Milk      1 cup          * 1 cup milk 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Corn Syrup        1 cup          * 1 cup sugar plus 1/4 cup liquid (use
                                   whatever liquid is called for in the
                                   recipe) 
                                 * 1 cup honey 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cornstarch        1 tablespoon   * 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour 
(for thickening)                 * 4 to 6 teaspoons quick-cooking tapioca 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cracker crumbs    3/4 cup        * 1 cup bread crumbs 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cream cheese                     * Part skim milk ricotta cheese or lowfat
                                   cottage cheese beaten until smooth 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cream,            1 cup          * 7/8 cup whole milk plus 1/2 tablespoon
half-and-half                      butter or margarine 
                                 * 3 tablespoons oil plus milk to equal
                                   1 cup 
                                 * 1 cup evaporated milk
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cream, heavy      1 cup          * 3/4 cup milk plus 1/3 cup butter or
(36 to 40% fat)                    margarine (for use in cooking and
                                   baking)
                                 * 2/3 cup buttermilk plus 1/3 cup oil
                                 * Evaporated skim milk or equal parts of
                                   part-skim milk ricotta cheese and 
                                   nonfat yogurt beaten until smooth 
                                   (this mixture cannot be heated because 
                                   of separation) 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cream, light      1 cup          * 1 cup undiluted evaporated milk
(18 to 20% fat)                  * 14 tablespoons milk plus 3 tablespoons
                                   butter or margarine
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cream, sour       1 cup          * 3 tablespoons butter plus 7/8 cup sour
(See Sour                          milk 
cream, cultured)                 * 7/8 cup buttermilk plus 3 tablespoons
                                   butter
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cream, whipped                   * Chill a 13 oz. can of evaporated milk
                                   for 12 hours. Add 1 teaspoon lemon
                                   juice. Whip until stiff. 
                                 * Beat until stiff: 1/2 cup ice-cold 
                                   water and 1/2 cup nonfat dry milk. Add
                                   1/2 cup sugar, slowly, while beating. 
                                   Then add 2 tablespoons lemon juice and 
                                   beat until mixed well. 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cream, whipping   1 cup          * 2 tablespoons lemon juice, 2 
                                   tablespoons sugar, 1 cup evaporated 
                                   milk 
                                 * 3/4 cup milk plus 1/3 cup butter (for
                                   cooking only) 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cream of tartar   1/2 teaspoon   * 1 1/2 teaspoon lemon juice or vinegar 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dill plant,       3 heads        * 1 tablespoon dill seed 
fresh or dried                     
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Egg 1 whole      (3 tablespoons) * 3 tablespoons slightly beaten egg 
                                 * 3 tablespoons plus 1 teaspoon frozen
                                   egg, thawed 
                                 * 2 1/2 tablespoons sifted dry whole egg
                                   powder plus 2 1/2 tablespoons lukewarm
                                   water 
                                 * 1/4 cup egg substitute 
                                 * 1 egg white and 2 teaspoons oil 
                                 * 2 egg whites 
                                 * 2 yolks plus 1 tablespoon water 
                                   (in cookies) 
                                 * 2 yolks (in custards, cream fillings 
                                   and similar mixtures) 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Egg substitute    1 egg          * 2 egg whites. May add 1 to 3 teaspoons
                                   vegetable oil for each yolk omitted. 
                                 * 1 egg white, 2 1/4 teaspoons nonfat 
                                   dry milk powder, and 2 teaspoons 
                                   vegetable oil (may store 1 week in 
                                   refrigerator or freezer) 
                                 * In cookies and cakes only -- use 2
                                   tablespoons water plus 1/2 teaspoon
                                   baking powder 
                                 * In cookie and cake recipes that call 
                                   for 2 or 3 eggs -- for each egg, use 
                                   2 tablespoons flour, 1/2 tablespoon
                                   shortening, 1/2 teaspoon baking 
                                   powder, 2 tablespoons liquid (use 
                                   liquid called for in recipe) 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Egg white         1 white        * 2 tablespoons frozen egg white, thawed 
                 (2 tablespoons) * 2 teaspoons sifted dry egg white 
                                   powder plus 2 tablespoons lukewarm
                                   water 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Egg yolk          1 yolk         * 2 tablespoons sifted dry egg yolk 
                 (1 1/2            powder plus 2 teaspoons water 
                  tablespoons)   * 1-1/3 tablespoons frozen egg yolk,
                                   thawed
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Extracts          1 teaspoon     * 1/4 teaspoon oil of similar flavor

(example: mint    1/4 teaspoon   * 2 drops oil of similar flavor (oils 
extract)                           won't evaporate at high temperatures) 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Flavor-based oil  1/4 teaspoon   * 1 teaspoon extract of same flavor 

(example: oil of  2 drops        * 1/4 teaspoon extract of same flavor 
peppermint) 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Flour,            1 tablespoon   * 1/2 tablespoon cornstarch, potato 
all-purpose                        starch, rice starch or arrowroot 
(for thickening)                   starch 
                                 * 1 tablespoon granular tapioca 
                                 * 2 to 3 teaspoons quick-cooking tapioca 
                                 * 1 tablespoon waxy rice flour 
                                 * 1 tablespoon waxy corn flour 
                                 * 2 tablespoons browned flour 
                                 * 1 1/2 tablespoons whole wheat flour 
                                 * 1/2 tablespoon whole wheat flour plus
                                   1/2 tablespoon all-purpose flour 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Flour,            1 cup sifted   The following flours require more
all-purpose                      leavening than wheat flour, so add 
(Note: Speciality                2 1/2 teaspoons baking powder per cup of 
flours added to                  flour. An even lighter product results 
yeast bread                      when buttermilk plus 1/2 teaspoon baking 
recipes will                     soda is substituted for each cup of milk 
result in a                      in the recipe: 
reduced volume                   
and a heavier                    * 1 1/4 cups rye flour 
product)                         * 3/4 cup rice flour
                                 * 1 1/2 cups oat flour 
                                 * 1 cup corn flour 
                                 * 3/4 cup coarse cornmeal 
                                 * 1 cup fine cornmeal 
                                 * 5/8 cup potato starch flour 
                                 * 1-1/8 cups cake flour 
                                 * 1 1/2 cups bread crumbs 
                                 * 1 cup rolled oats 
                                 * 1 1/2 cups barley flour 
                                 * 1 cup unsifted all-purpose flour 
                                   minus 2 tablespoons 
                                 * 1/3 cup cornmeal or soybean flour 
                                   plus 2/3 cup all-purpose flour 
                                 * 1/2 cup cornmeal, bran, rice flour, 
                                   rye flour or whole wheat flour plus 
                                   1/2 cup all-purpose flour 
                                 * Substitute whole wheat flour for 1/4
                                   to 1/2 of white flour called for in a
                                   recipe 
                                 * 1/4 cup soybean flour plus 3/4 cup
                                   all-purpose flour 
                                 * 1/3 cup wheat germ plus 2/3 cup 
                                   all-purpose flour 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Flour, cake       1 cup sifted   * 1 cup minus 2 tablespoons sifted 
                                   all-purpose flour 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Flour, pastry     1 cup          * 7/8 cup all-purpose flour 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Flour,            1 cup          * 1 cup minus 2 teaspoons all-purpose 
self-rising                        flour plus 1 1/2 teaspoons baking 
                                   powder and ½ teaspoon salt 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Flour, whole      1 cup          * 1 cup white wheat flour 
wheat                            * 1 cup graham flour 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Garlic            1 clove,       * 1/8 teaspoon garlic powder or 1/4
                  small            teaspoon instant minced garlic
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Garlic salt       3/4 teaspoon   * 1 medium size clove or 1/2 teaspoon
                                   minced fresh 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Gelatine,         3-ounce        * 1 tablespoon plain gelatine plus 2 
flavored          package          cups fruit juice 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ginger            1/8 teaspoon,  * 1 tablespoon candied ginger rinsed in
                  powdered         water to remove sugar, finely cut 
                                 * 1 tablespoon fresh ginger, grated 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Herbs, dried      1 teaspoon     * 1 tablespoon fresh, finely cut 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Herbs, fresh      1 tablespoon,  * 1 teaspoon dried herbs 
                  finely cut     * 1/2 teaspoon ground herbs 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Honey             1 cup          * 1 1/4 cups sugar plus 1/4 cup liquid
                                   (use liquid called for in recipe) 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Horseradish       1 tablespoon,  * 2 tablespoons bottled
                  fresh 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lemon             1 teaspoon     * 1/2 teaspoon vinegar 
                  juice 
                  1 medium       * 2 to 3 tablespoons lemon juice and 1 
                                   to 2 teaspoons rind 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lemon peel,       1 teaspoon     * 1 to 2 teaspoons grated fresh lemon
dried                               peel
                                 * grated peel of 1 medium size lemon 
                                 * 1/2 teaspoon lemon extract 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Macaroni          2 cups,        * 2 cups spaghetti, uncooked, (2 inch
(4 cups cooked)   uncooked         pieces) 
                                 * 4 cups noodles, uncooked 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Maple sugar       1/2 cup        * 1 cup maple syrup 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Maple sugar       1 tablespoon   * 1 tablespoon white granulated sugar 
(grated and
packed) 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Marshmallows,     1 cup          * 10 large 
miniature 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Mayonnaise (for   1 cup          * 1/2 cup yogurt and ½ cup mayonnaise or 
use in salads                      salad dressing 
and salad                        * 1 cup salad dressing 
dressings)                       * 1 cup sour cream 
                                 * 1 cup yogurt 
                                 * 1 cup cottage cheese pureed in a
                                   blender 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Milk, buttermilk  1 cup          * 1 cup plain yogurt 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Milk, buttermilk  1 cup          * 1 cup minus 1 tablespoon sweet milk 
or sour                            plus 1 tablespoon lemon juice or 
                                   vinegar (allow to stand 5 to 10
                                   minutes)
                                 * 1 cup sweet milk and 1 3/4 teaspoons
                                   cream of tartar 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Milk, evaporated  If recipe      * 1 cup liquid whole milk 
(whole or skim)   calls for 1/2
                  cup plus 1/2
                  cup water 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Milk, evaporated  1 can (about   * Whip until smooth: 
                  12 ounces)         1 cup nonfat dry milk 
                                     1 3/4 cups warm water 
                                     Keep refrigerated 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Milk, skim        1 cup          * 4 to 5 tablespoons nonfat dry milk
                                   powder and enough water to make one 
                                   cup, or follow manufacturer's 
                                   directions 
                  1/4 cup        * 4 teaspoons nonfat dry milk powder 
                                   plus water to make 1/4 cup, or follow
                                   manufacturer's directions 
                  1/3 cup        * 2 tablespoons nonfat dry milk powder 
                                   plus water to make 1/3 cup, or follow
                                   manufacturer's directions 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Milk, sweetened   1 can (about   * Heat the following ingredients until 
condensed         1-1/3 cup)       sugar and butter are dissolved: 
                                     1/3 cup and 2 tablespoons 
                                     evaporated milk 
                                     1 cup sugar 
                                     3 tablespoons butter or margarine 
                  1 cup          * Heat the following ingredients until 
                                   sugar and butter are dissolved: 
                                     1/3 cup evaporated milk 
                                     3/4 cup sugar 
                                     2 tablespoons butter or margarine 
                                 * Add 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons dry milk 
                                   powder to 1/2 cup warm water. Mix 
                                   well. Add 3/4 cup sugar and stir until
                                   smooth. 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Milk, sweetened   To make about  * Combine 1 cup instant nonfat dry milk, 
condensed         1 1/4 cups in    2/3 cup sugar, 1/3 cup boiling water 
                  blender          and 3 tablespoons margarine. Blend 
                                   until smooth. To thicken, let set in
                                   refrigerator for 24 hours. 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Milk, whole       1 cup          * 1 cup reconstituted nonfat dry milk 
                                   plus 2 1/2 teaspoons butter or 
                                   margarlne
                                 * 1/2 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup
                                   water                             
                                 * 1 cup buttermilk plus 1/2 teaspoon
                                   baking soda (for use in baking, 
                                   decrease baking powder by 2 
                                   teaspoons)
                                 * 4 tablespoons whole dry milk plus 1 
                                   cup water or follow manufacturer's
                                   directions 
                                 * 1 cup fruit juice or 1 cup potato 
                                   water (in baking) 
                                 * 1/4 cup nonfat dry milk, 7/8 cup 
                                   water and 2 teaspoons butter or 
                                   margarine 
                                 * 1 cup water plus 1½ teaspoons butter 
                                   (in baking) 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Molasses          1 cup          * 3/4 cup sugar plus 2 teaspoons baking
                                   powder (increase liquid called for in
                                   recipe by 5 tablespoons and decrease
                                   baking soda by 1/2 teaspoon) 
                                 * 3/4 cup sugar plus 1 1/4 teaspoons 
                                   cream of tartar (increase liquid 
                                   called for in recipe by 5 tablespoons) 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Mushrooms         1 pound fresh  * 3 ounces dried mushrooms 
                                 * 6- or 8-ounce can 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Mushrooms,        1 tablespoon   * 3 tablespoons whole dried mushrooms 
powdered                         * 4 ounces fresh 
                                 * 2 ounces canned 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Mustard, dry      1 teaspoon     * 1 tablespoon prepared mustard 
                                 * 1/2 teaspoon mustard seeds 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Oil, flavor-based                * See Flavor-Based Oil 
(example: oil of  
peppermint)       
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Onion             1 small        * 1/4 cup chopped, fresh onion 
                                 * 1-1/3 teaspoons onion salt 
                                 * 1 to 2 tablespoons minced onion 
                                 * 1 teaspoon onion powder 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Orange            1 medium       * 6 to 8 tablespoons juice 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Orange peel,      1 tablespoon   * 2 to 3 tablespoons grated fresh orange 
dried                              peel
                                 * Grated peel of 1 medium-size orange 
                  2 teaspoons    * 1 teaspoon orange extract 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Orange peel,      1 medium       * 2 to 3 tablespoons grated fresh orange
fresh                              peel 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Parsley, dried    1 teaspoon     * 3 teaspoons fresh parsley, chopped 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Peppers,          1 tablespoon,  * 3 tablespoons fresh green pepper, 
green bell        dried            chopped
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Peppers,          1 tablespoon,  * 3 tablespoons fresh red bell pepper, 
red bell           dried           chopped
                                 * 2 tablespoons pimiento, chopped 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Peppermint        1 tablespoon   * 1/4 cup fresh mint, chopped 
extract                          * See also Extracts 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pimiento          2 tablespoons  * 1 tablespoon dried red bell peppers,
                  chopped          rehydrated 
                                 * 3 tablespoons fresh red bell pepper,
                                   chopped 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pumpkin pie       1 teaspoon     * 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon, 1/4 teaspoon
                                   ginger, 1/8 teaspoon allspice and 1/8
                                   teaspoon nutmeg 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rennet            1 tablet       * 1 tablespoon liquid rennet 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rice              1 cup regular, * 1 cup uncooked converted rice 
                  uncooked         (3 cups cooked) 
                                 * 1 cup uncooked brown rice 
                                 * 1 cup uncooked wild rice 
                  1 cup cooked   * 1 cup cooked bulgur wheat 
                                 * 1 cup cooked pearl barley 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rum               1/4 cup        * 1 tablespoon rum extract plus 3
                                   tablespoons liquid (use liquid called
                                   for in recipe or water) 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Shortening,       1 cup          * 1 cup cooking oil (cooking oil should
melted                             not be substituted if recipe does not
                                   call for melted shortening) 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Shortening,       1 cup          * 1 cup minus 2 tablespoons lard 
(used in baking)                 * 1-1/8 cups butter or margarine 
                                   (decrease salt called for in recipe by
                                   1/2 teaspoon) 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Shrimp, fresh     1 cup cleaned, * 3/4 pound raw in shell, clean and cook 
                  cooked         * 7-ounce package frozen, peeled shrimp,
                                   cooked 
                                 * 4 1/2- or 5-ounce can of shrimp 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sour cream,       1 cup          * 7/8 cup sour milk or buttermilk plus 
cultured                           1/3 cup butter or margarine
                                 * Blend until smooth: 1/3 cup 
                                   buttermilk, 1 tablespoon lemon juice 
                                   and 1 cup cottage cheese 
                                 * 1-1/8 cups non-fat dry milk powder, 
                                   1/2 cup warm water, and 1 tablespoon 
                                   vinegar (mixture will thicken in 
                                   refrigerator in a few hours) 
                                 * 1 cup evaporated milk at 70°F plus 1
                                   table-spoon vinegar (allow to stand
                                   until it clabbers) 
                                 * 1 cup plain yogurt (in cooking add a
                                   tablespoon of cornstarch to each cup 
                                   to prevent separating) 
                                 * 3/4 cup milk, 3/4 teaspoon lemon 
                                   juice and 1/3 cup butter or margarine 
                                 * 3/4 cup buttermilk plus ¼ cup oil 
                                 * 1 cup cottage cheese and 2 or 3
                                   teaspoons of lemon juice, pureed in
                                   blender 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Spearmint,        1 tablespoon   * 1/4 cup fresh mint, chopped 
extract                          * See also Extracts 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sugar, brown      1 cup, firmly  * 1 cup granular sugar 
                  packed         * 1 cup granulated sugar plus 1/4 cup 
                                   molasses 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sugar,            1 cup          * 3/4 cup granulated sugar 
confectioners'
or powdered 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sugar, white      1 teaspoon     * 1/2 to 3/4 teaspoon honey or molasses  
                  1 cup          * 2 cups corn syrup (reduce liquid       
                                   called for in recipe by 1/4 cup. Never 
                                   replace more than 1/2 of sugar called  
                                   for in recipe with corn syrup.)        
                                 * 1 cup brown sugar, firmly packed       
                                 * 1 3/4 cups confectioners' sugar (for   
                                   uses other than baking)                
                                 * 1 cup molasses plus 1/2 teaspoon soda  
                                   (omit baking powder or use very        
                                   little. Substitute molasses for no     
                                   more than half the sugar. Reduce       
                                   liquid in recipe by 1/4 cup per cup
                                   of molasses.)                          
                                 * 3/4 cup maple syrup (Reduce liquid     
                                   called for in recipe by 3              
                                   tablespoons.)                          
                                 * 1 cup honey (decrease liquid called    
                                   for in recipe by 1/4 cup. In baked     
                                   goods, add 1/2 teaspoon of baking      
                                   soda for each cup of honey substituted 
                                   and lower baking temperature 25 
                                   degrees. In cookie recipes using eggs 
                                   and no additional liquid, increase the 
                                   flour by about 2 tablespoons per cup 
                                   of honey. Chill before shaping and 
                                   baking. Half of the sugar in cakes,    
                                   can be replaced with honey. Two-thirds 
                                   of the sugar can be replaced in fruit  
                                   bars, but replace no more than a third 
                                   of the sugar in ginger snaps with 
                                   honey. When making cakes or cookies, 
                                   first mix honey with the fat or the 
                                   liquid, then mix with other 
                                   ingredients. If this is not done, a 
                                   soggy layer may form on top of the 
                                   baked product.)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sugar, white                       Sweeteners: 
                                   * Sugar Twin and Sprinkle Sweet: 
                                     measure like sugar. Substitute 1 
                                     teaspoon sweetener for 1 teaspoon 
                                     sugar, 1 cup sweetener for 1 cup 
                                     sugar.
                                   * Equal: 1 packet = 2 teaspoons sugar 
                                   * Sweet 10: 10 drops = 1 teaspoon sugar
                                           1 tablespoon = 1/2 cup sugar 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tapioca,          1 tablespoon     * 2 tablespoons pearl tapioca 
granular          2 teaspoons      * 1 tablespoon flour 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tomato juice      1 cup            * 1/2 cup tomato sauce plus 1/2 cup
                                     water 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tomatoes, fresh   2 cups, chopped  * 16-ounce can 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tomato sauce      15-ounce can     * 6-ounce can tomato paste plus 1 cup
                                     water 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tomatoes, chopped 16-ounce can     * 3 fresh medium tomatoes 
                                   * 16-ounce can stewed tomatoes 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tomato soup       10 3/4-ounce can * 1 cup tomato sauce plus 1/4 cup water
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Vanilla extract   1 teaspoon       * 1-inch vanilla bean split and 
                                     simmered in liquid of recipe 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Wine              1 cup            * 13 tablespoons water, 3 tablespoons
                                     lemon juice and 1 tablespoon sugar 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Worcestershire    1 teaspoon       * 1 teaspoon bottled steak sauce 
sauce 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Yeast,            1 tablespoon     * 1 cake (6/10 ounce), compressed 
active dry                           (2/3 ounce) 
                                   * 1 packaged (1/4 ounce) active dry 
                                     yeast 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Yogurt, plain     1 cup            * 1 cup buttermilk 
                                   * 1 cup cottage cheese blended until
                                     smooth 
                                   * 1 cup sour cream 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
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